Volume 22, Issue 3
Numerical Computation of Doubly-Periodic Stokes Flow Bounded by a Plane with Applications to Nodal Cilia.

Franz Hoffmann & Ricardo Cortez

Commun. Comput. Phys., 22 (2017), pp. 620-642.

Published online: 2017-09

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  • Abstract

A numerical method is presented for the computation of externally forced Stokes flows bounded by the plane z=0 and satisfying periodic boundary conditions in the x and y directions. The motivation for this work is the simulation of flows generated by cilia, which are hair-like structures attached to the surface of cells that generate flows through coordinated beating. Large collections of cilia on a surface can be modeled using a doubly-periodic domain. The approach presented here is to derive a regularized version of the fundamental solution of the incompressible Stokes equations in Fourier space for the periodic directions and physical space for the z direction. This analytical expression for ˆu(k,m;z) can then be used to compute the fluid velocity u(x,y,z) via a two-dimensional inverse fast Fourier transform for any fixed value of z. Repeating the computation for multiple values of z leads to the fluid velocity on a uniform grid in physical space. The zero-flow condition at the plane z =0 is enforced through the use of images. The performance of the method is illustrated by numerical examples of particle transport by nodal cilia, which verify optimal particle transport for parameters consistent with previous studies. The results also show that for two cilia in the periodic box, out-of-phase beating produces considerable more particle transport than in-phase beating.

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