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Solving Optimization Problems over the Stiefel Manifold by Smooth Exact Penalty Functions
Nachuan Xiao and Xin Liu

J. Comp. Math. DOI: 10.4208/jcm.2307-m2021-0331

Publication Date : 2023-10-27

  • Abstract

In this paper, we present a novel penalty model called ExPen for optimization over the Stiefel manifold. Different from existing penalty functions for orthogonality constraints, ExPen adopts a smooth penalty function without using any first-order derivative of the objective function. We show that all the first-order stationary points of ExPen with a sufficiently large penalty parameter are either feasible, namely, are the first-order stationary points of the original optimization problem, or far from the Stiefel manifold. Besides, the original problem and ExPen share the same second-order stationary points. Remarkably, the exact gradient and Hessian of ExPen are easy to compute. As a consequence, abundant algorithm resources in unconstrained optimization can be applied straightforwardly to solve ExPen.

  • Copyright

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